As a parent, it is important to know the difference...

Many parents are under the impression that the vision screening their child receives from the school nurse or at the pediatrician's office is sufficient.  There are no set standards or criteria for passing a vision screening; and a vision screening can give a parent a false sense of security. It is estimated that 15-20% of school-aged children have a vision problem that a vision screening will miss. The American Optometric Association reports that 5-10% of pre-schoolers and 25% of school-aged children are diagnosed with vision conditions significant enough to impact learning once they a comprehensive learning-related pediatric vision examination.  

Current vision screening methods cannot be relied upon to effectively identify individuals in need of vision care. In some cases, a vision screening may actually serve as an unnecessary barrier to an early diagnosis of vision problems. Vision screenings can create a false sense of security for those individuals who "pass" the screening, but who actually have a vision problem, thereby delaying further examination and treatment.

To understand why vision screenings may not find a vision problem, we need to look at the factors that can limit their effectiveness.

*       Limited testing - Many vision screenings test only for distance visual acuity. While the ability to see clearly in the distance is important, it does not give any indication of how well the eyes focus up close, or work together. It also does not give any information about the health of the eyes.

Some screenings may also include a plus lens test for farsightedness and a test of eye coordination. However, even these additional screening tests will fail to detect many vision problems.
*       Untrained personnel - Often times a vision screening is conducted by administrative personnel or volunteers who have little training. While well intentioned, these individuals do not have the knowledge to competently assess screening results.
*       Inadequate testing equipment - Even when done in a pediatricians' or primary care physicians' office, the scope of vision screening may be limited by the type of testing equipment available. Factors such as room lighting, testing distances and maintenance of the testing equipment can also affect test results.


According to a study published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, vision screenings were attempted on fewer than 60% of the three-year old children in pediatricians' offices.  They found that in general, the younger the child, the less likely it was that a vision screening was attempted.  An attempt was defined as 10 or more seconds spent trying to get the child to cooperate with a vision screening.

The purpose of a vision screening is to diagnose "gross abnormalities" in distance vision.  Vision screenings are a limited process and cannot be used to diagnose an eye or vision problem, but rather to indicate a potential need for further evaluation.  Additionally, screenings do not typically include any sort of test for near vision; which is the vision used when drawing, coloring, putting puzzles together and in the classroom.

Just as children should visit the pediatrician and the dentist, they should also see a licensed eye care provider for a Learning Related Vision Examination.  A pediatric Learning Related Vision Examination differs from a typical eye exam because it includes testing and evaluation of visual skills in addition to visual acuity.

At Artisan Optics, Pediatric Learning Related Eye Examinations are performed by a Residency Trained Pediatric Optometrist and include the following:

  • Acuity - Distance Vision:  visual acuity (sharpness, clearness) at 20 foot distance.
  • Acuity - Near Vision: visual acuity for short distance (specifically, reading distance).
  • Focusing Skills:  the ability of the eyes to maintain clear vision at varying distances.
  • Eye Tracking and Fixation Skills:  the ability of the eyes to look at and accurately follow an object; this includes the ability to move the eyes across a sheet of paper while reading.
  • Binocular Vision or Fusion:  the ability to use both eyes together at the same time.
  • Stereopis: binocular (two-eyed) depth perception.
  • Convergence and Eye Teaming Skills: the ability of the eyes to aim, move and work as a coordinated team.
  • Color Vision:  the ability to differentiate colors.
  • Reversal Frequency: confusing letters or words (b,d; p,q; saw, was; etc).
  • Evaluation of age-appropriate vision skills.
  • Visual Memory:  the ability to store and retrieve visual information.
  • Visual Form Discrimination:  the ability to determine if two shapes, colors, sizes, position, or distances are the same or different.
  • Visual Motor Integration: the ability to combine visual input with other sensory input (hand and body movements, balance, hearing, etc); the ability to transform images from a vertical to a horizontal plane (such as from the blackboard to the desk surface).

Remember, an eye exam that tests distance vision only is not an adequate evaluation of a child's visual development.  The visual skills listed above affect a child's success in reading (comprehension and reading rate), overall academic achievement, and sports preformance.

Since 1991, our team of trained specialists have been providing accurate, professional diagnoses and state-of-the-art treatment you can count on.  Our expertise, experience and results speak for themselves.  We look forward to being of service to you and your family.

Click here to schedule an eye exam


Jill A. Kronberg, OD, FAAO: Residency-Trained Pediatric Optometrist

Idaho's best choice in pediatric eye care


Dr. Kronberg grew up in Wyoming before attending the University of Northern Colorado where she received a bachelor's of science in chemistry. Dr. Kronberg graduated from Southern California College of Optometry before pursuing a residency in pediatrics and primary care at the University of California, Berkeley.

Dr. Kronberg is the first residency trained pediatric optometrist in Idaho. Her areas of expertise include infant and toddler vision development, amblyopia, strabismus, and the specific visual conditions of the pediatric population - including those with special needs. Her experience brings specialized developmental pediatric vision care to Idaho.

Dr. Kronberg is a fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (FAAO) and a member of the American Optometric Association & Idaho Optometric Physicians.


Accepting new patients.


Schedule your appointment with Dr. Kronberg or call us at 208.377.8899.

InfantSee Eye Exams

InfantSee Eye Exam  3/24/2009 Download