Many older people develop macular degeneration as part of the body's natural aging process. It can be hereditary and can be caused by certain medical conditions.
The two most common types of age-related macular degeneration are "dry" (atrophic) and "wet" (exudative):
"Dry" macular degeneration (atrophic)
Most people with macular degeneration have the "dry" type. It is caused by aging and thinning of the tissues of the macula. Vision loss is usually gradual.
"Wet" macular degeneration (exudative)
"Wet" macular degeneration accounts for about 10% of all cases. It results when abnormal blood vessels form at the back of the eye. These new blood vessels leak fluid or blood and blur central vision. Vision loss may be rapid and severe.
Certain types of "wet" macular degeneration can be treated with laser surgery, a brief outpatient procedure that uses a focused beam of light to slow or stop leaking blood vessels that damage the macula. A treatment called photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a combination of a special drug and laser treatment to slow or stop leaking blood vessels.
Another form of treatment targets a specific chemical in your body that is critical in causing abnormal blood vessels to grow under the retina. That chemical is called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF drugs block the trouble-causing VEGF, reducing the growth of abnormal blood vessels and slowing their leakage.
These procedures may preserve more sight overall, though they are not cures that restore vision to normal. Despite advanced medical treatment, most people with macular degeneration still experience some vision loss.